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Tuesday, July 3

  1. page Group 10 edited ... (Hoehn & Marieb, 2007) Our survival depends upon sensation (awareness of changes in the e…
    ...
    (Hoehn & Marieb, 2007)
    Our survival depends upon sensation (awareness of changes in the environment) and perception (conscious interpretation of those stimuli). Perception determines how the stimulus will be responded to.
    {reflex_arc.jpg}
    Figure
    Figure 1: Neurons
    2. Anatomy and Physiology of Swallowing
    The key purpose of swallowing is to transport food and liquid down through to the stomach from the mouth, in a manner which the airway is protected from potentially dangerous ingress of food and liquid (Miles, Nauntofte & Svensson, 2004).
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Thursday, February 16

Thursday, June 2

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Wednesday, October 6

  1. page Group 7 edited Group 7: Sophie Erika, Steven & Mia =Periodontal Periodontal Disease & Diabetes = …
    Group 7: Sophie
    Erika, Steven & Mia
    =PeriodontalPeriodontal Disease & Diabetes
    =

    CONTENTS
    1. Introduction
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    1:59 am
  2. page Group 7 edited Group 7: Sophie Erika, Steven & Mia ... & Diabetes = CONTENTS ... Alpha or A…
    Group 7: Sophie
    Erika, Steven & Mia
    ...
    & Diabetes
    =
    CONTENTS
    ...
    Alpha or A cells make up approximately 17% of pancreatic islet cells and secrete glucagon (Tortora & Derrickson, 2006). Glucagon is secreted when there is a decrease in the blood glucose levels, and their principal action is to raise blood glucose by accelerating the breakdown of glycogen into glucose (Tortora & Derrickson, 2006).
    Beta cells or B cells make up 70% of pancreatic islet cells and secrete insulin (Tortora & Derrickson, 2006). Insulin is released when blood glucose levels are elevated and acts by accelerating transport of glucose into cells to lower blood glucose (Tortora & Derrickson, 2006).
    ...
    (Martini, 2006).
    {Islet_Of_Langerhans.jpg} Figure 3.2: Islet of Langerhans (NIH & DHHS, 2009)
    {Photomicrograph_Of_Pancreas_Tissue.jpg} Figure 3.3: Photomicrograph of pancreatic tissue, differentially sustained: A pancreatic islet is surrounded by blue-gray acinar cells, which produce the exocrine product (enzyme-rich pancreatic juice). In this preparation, the beta cells of the islets that produce insulin are stained pale pink, abd tge alpha cells that produce glucagon are stained bright pink (x150) (Marieb & Hoehn, 2005).
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    1:58 am
  3. page Group 7 edited Group 7: Sophie ... & Mia Periodontal =Periodontal Disease & Diabetes ---- …
    Group 7: Sophie
    ...
    & Mia
    Periodontal

    =Periodontal
    Disease & Diabetes
    ----

    =

    CONTENTS
    1. Introduction
    ...
    Signs and Symptoms of Periodontitis:
    If gingivitis is left untreated it may further progress to become periodontitis (AAP, 2009). Plaque now accumulates subgingivally (below the gum line) where by-products (toxins) produced by bacteria, retained in the plaque, irritate the gingival (gums) and periodontal tissues (periodontal ligament, alveolar bone) (AAP, 2009). The gingiva will slowly detach or separate from the tooth or teeth in the affected area(s) which then forms pockets that become more susceptible to infection (AAP, 2009). As periodontitis advances pocket depths increase and more periodontal tissues are destroyed (AAP, 2009). Eventually teeth may be lost due to lack of attachment of the supporting tissues if no periodontal treatment is undertaken (AAP, 2009). Unlike gingivitis, there is often little bleeding associated with periodontitis (AAP, 2009).
    ...
    - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66LlaGa2Xms
    3. What is Diabetes?
    Diabetes mellitus is the most common form of endocrine disorder in which the body is unable to produce or use insulin (Tortora & Derrickson, 2006). The body cannot use the hormone for transportation of glucose into cells, resulting in high blood glucose levels (Marieb & Hoehn, 2005). If the elevated blood glucose levels exceed the re-absorption capacity of the kidneys they will excrete glucose into the urine (Campbell, et al. 2006). Characteristics of Diabetes include excessive urine production, as the kidneys are unable to reabsorb water, excessive thirst and excessive eating (Marieb & Hoehn, 2005). There are two forms of Diabetes mellitus which are caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors.
    ...
    Beta cells or B cells make up 70% of pancreatic islet cells and secrete insulin (Tortora & Derrickson, 2006). Insulin is released when blood glucose levels are elevated and acts by accelerating transport of glucose into cells to lower blood glucose (Tortora & Derrickson, 2006).
    Delta cells release a peptide hormone that is identical to growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GH-IH). GI-IH prevents the release of glucagon and insulin by other islet cells and decreases the rate of food absorption and enzyme secretion along the digestive tract (Martini, 2006).
    {Islet_Of_Langerhans.jpg}
    Figure
    Figure 3.2: Islet
    {Photomicrograph_Of_Pancreas_Tissue.jpg} Figure 3.3: Photomicrograph of pancreatic tissue, differentially sustained: A pancreatic islet is surrounded by blue-gray acinar cells, which produce the exocrine product (enzyme-rich pancreatic juice). In this preparation, the beta cells of the islets that produce insulin are stained pale pink, abd tge alpha cells that produce glucagon are stained bright pink (x150) (Marieb & Hoehn, 2005).
    ...
    Derrickson, 2006).
    {Insulin_&_Metabolism.jpg} Figure 3.4: Effects of insulin on metabolism: When insulin concentrations are low (during the post absorptive period), these normal effects of insulin are inhibited and glycogenolysis and glyconeogenesis occur, that is, the insulin-mediated intracellular reactions are reversed (Note: Not all effects are shown in all cells) (Marieb & Hoehn, 2005).
    {Glucagon_&_Metabolism.jpg} Figure 3.5: Influence of glucagon on blood glucose levels: Negative feedback control exerted by rising plasma glucose levels on glucagon secretion is indicated by dashed arrows (Marieb & Hoehn, 2005).
    ...
    Alveolar bone loss (Hirsch, 2004)
    Several periodontal abscesses which may form simultaneously (Hirsch, 2004)
    {Symptomatic_Results_Of_Insulin_Deficit.jpg}
    Figure
    Figure 4.1: Symptomatic
    {Figure_1_Severe_Gingival_Inflammatory_Reaction_To_Dental_Plaque_-_HB2b.jpg} Figure 4.2: Severe gingival inflammatory reaction to dental plaque. This 55 year old patient has just been diagnosed with Type II Diabetes. The gingival tissue is friable, oedematous and prone to bleeding on tooth brushing (Hirsch, 2004).
    {Figure_2_Alveolar_Bone_Loss_-_HB2b.jpg} Figure 4.3: Alveolar Bone Loss. This orthopantomograph (OPG - full mouth x-ray) of a 54 year old patient with poorly controlled Diabetes shows extensive alveolar bone loss involving most teeth. The destruction of bone has been rapid even though the patient has been undergoing Periodontal Therapy (Hirsch, 2004).
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    1:54 am

Monday, October 4

  1. page Group 9 edited Group 9 Stress Members: Denise, Beth and Duncan ... As a result, a person under acute stress…

    Group 9 Stress
    Members: Denise, Beth and Duncan
    ...
    As a result, a person under acute stress would find it increasingly difficult to breathe and possibly bring about panic.
    iiEffects on the immune system
    ...
    as immune suppression. Throughsuppression.Through prolonged stress,
    aaEffects of chronic stress on the body
    Chronic stress can lead to serious health problems as it can disrupt nearly every system in the body (Pfaff, 2002). It can raise blood pressure, suppress the immune system, increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, contribute to infertility, and speed the aging process (Pfaff, 2002). Additionally, long term stress can leave individuals to be more vulnerable to anxiety and depression, chronic fatigue, headaches, and back pain (Hugo et al. 2008).
    ...
    xxAcute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)
    ANUG is found to be the most associated form of disease in correlation with stress. There are many studies suggesting that from an increased amount of stress, there is an increased probability of ANUG (Eli, 1992). The symptoms of ANUG are bulbous interdental papilla, swelling and redness of the gums, lack of stippling, colour variation and ulcerations of the gingiva, as illustrated in the images below.
    {RAU.jpg} Figure 9 - Severe ANUG {anug.jpg} Figure 10 - Severe ANUG
    ccRecurrent apthous ulcerations (RAU)
    When the body is stressed, it places a great pressure onto various bodily systems, and as a result, systems will often not function as well as they should. It has been suggested that through clinical observations and epidermiological research the occurrence of the oral conditions of both RHL and RAU have an association with stress (Eli, 1992). After completing a study on 1738 patients, Sirous et al. (1957) determined that over 21% of patients in the study had RAU, indicated by lesions within the oral cavity proceeding periods of mental stress. Severe and emotional stress immediately preceded onset of ulcerations in approximately 60% of these patients. RAU can be broken down into 3 different forms of ulcers: minor, major and herpiform. The severity of ulcers was found to increase during times of stress and decrease during times of relaxation. Other studies also concluded similar findings with the severity of the disease seeming to be related emotional factors (Eli, 1992).
    ...
    Eli I (1992) Oral Psychocphysiology Stress, Pain and Behaviour in Dental care, CRC Press, Florida
    Gutall K 2007, Stress and Periodontal Diseases Linked, viewed 13 October 2009, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/79225.php
    ...
    al. (2008) Association
    Association
    of chronic
    ...
    low saliva flow,flow
    ,
    25(1):18-25.
    Humphries
    ...
    S. (2000) Behavioural
    Behavioural
    Sciences For Dentistry,Dentistry
    ,
    Churchill Livingstone
    Leão J, Gomes V, Porter S 2007, Ulcerative lesions of the mouth: an update for the general medical practitioner, viewed 30 September 2009,
    www.scielo.br/scielo. php?script=sci_arttext...
    Lempriere,

    Lempriere,
    D (2009) Sleep
    Sleep
    and your circulation rhythm,rhythm
    ,
    viewed 5
    http://danlempriere.com/articles.php?id=2
    ...
    G 2007, Acute
    Acute
    stress may enhance immune response,response
    ,
    viewed 2
    http://www.anxietyinsightsinfo/acute_stress_may_have_anti_cancer_benefits.htm
    ...
    E. (2009) Essentials
    Essentials
    of Human
    ...
    , 9th Edition,Edition
    ,
    Pearson Benjamin
    ...
    Hoehn (2007) Human
    Human
    Anatomy and Physiology,Physiology
    ,
    7th Edition,
    ...
    Lasley (2002) The
    The
    End Of
    ...
    We Know It,It
    ,
    The Dana
    Medletter Associates (2008) Salivary glands disorder, viewed 2 September 2009, http://hopkins.portfolio.crushlovely.com/reference/article/salivary-gland-disorders
    Ng S, Leung K 2006, A community study on the relationship between stress, coping affective dispositions and periodontal attachment loss, viewed 17 August 2009,
    http://www3.interscience.wiley.com.proxy.library.adelaide.edu.au/cgi-bin/fulltext/118552404/PDFSTART
    ...
    D (2002) Hormones,Brain,
    Hormones,Brain,
    and Behaviours Second edition,edition
    ,
    Academic Press,
    ...
    Nowak (2005) Pediatric
    Pediatric
    Dentistry: Infancy Through Adolescence,Adolescence
    ,
    4th Edition,
    ...
    C (1999) Social
    Social
    factors in Dental Epidemiology, Internation
    Internation
    Publishing Co.
    Schroeter E Unknown, Periodontal Disease, viewed 30 September 2009,
    griffindentist.com/ periodontal_disease.htm
    ...
    http://jada.ada.org.proxy.library.adelaide.edu.au/cgi/content/full/133/9/1245
    Spiller M 2000, Disease Processes, viewed 30 September,
    www.doctorspiller.com/disease_processes.htm
    Stanford T, Rees T 2003, Acquired immune suppression and other risk factors/indicators for periodontal disease progression, viewed 13 October 2009, http://www3.interscience.wiley.com.proxy.library.adelaide.edu.au/cgibin/fulltext/118887016/PDFSTART
    Unknown, Apothous Ulcers, viewed 30 September 2009,
    ...
    missinglink.ucsf.edu/.../ herpes_simplex.html
    Unknown, Tooth decay - cavities, dentifrices, gingivitis, viewed 20 September 2009,
    webs.wichita.edu/.../ lecture22/lecture22.html
    Veloso, B (2009) Spiritual Warfare and Adrenal Fatigue, viewed 2 September 2009, http://heavenawaits.wordpress.com/spiritual-warfare-and-adrenal-fatigue
    ...
    D Unknown, Periodontal
    Periodontal
    Disease, viewed
    debrawelshdds.com/ disease.html
    (view changes)
    7:22 am

Wednesday, July 21

  1. page Group 8 edited ... References Introduction ... three stages, known known as the ... hormonal influences…
    ...
    References
    Introduction
    ...
    three stages, knownknown as the
    ...
    hormonal influences. TheseThese influences can
    1) The different trimesters
    ...
    Figure 1.1). It is important to understand that during gestation, physiological changes in the mother concern nearly every bodily system. Hence, early development of the embryo is greatly influenced by genes and the overall health of the mother (Wilkins, 2005).
    First Trimester
    ...
    (Wilkins 2005).
    It is during this three month period that a number of 'complex developmental events' occur, which have been broken down into four general processes, including 'cleavage', 'implantation', 'placentation', and 'embryogenesis' (Martini, 2001, p1068).
    'Cleavage' involves the process of cell divisions that are initiated immediately after the egg is fertilized by the sperm and ends at the first contact of the uterine wall (Martini, 2001). It is during this period that the 'zygote becomes a pre-embryo', which eventually becomes a multicellular compound known as a blastocyst (a spherical layer of cells that has an inner cell mass, a cavity and an outter layer/trophoblast) (Martini, 2001, p1068).
    ...
    Hormones during pregnancy
    During this period of gestation there are a number of significantly important hormones released in order to safely bring the pregnancy to term. The first two are progesterone and oestrogens, which is 'two primary steroid hormones produced in the ovarian follicles under the influence of the gonadoatrophic hormones of the anterior pituitary' (Whitaker et al, 1994, p758). They are secreted during the first few months of pregnancy by the corpus luteum in the ovary as a way to preserve the lining of the uterus for the duration of the pregnancy, while also setting up the necessary mammary glands for milk secretion (Tortora & Grabowski, 2003). It is from the third month right through till birth that the placenta is then in charge of supplying these hormones, as the corpus luteum is no longer needed. Oestrogen plays an important role in the promotion of cell growth and the development of secondary sexual characteristics of women; where as progesterone's main role is almost entirely involved in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and the breasts for lactation (Whitaker et al, 1994). The levels of oestrogen in a female are secreted in small amounts during childhood and increase significantly after puberty, thereby promoting the enlargement of the external genitalia, the fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina. Similarly, fat deposits in the breast region increase, the skin becomes more vascular and there is an increase in skeletal osteoblastic activity results (Whitaker et al, 1994). Progesterone on the other hand promotes secretory changes in the endometrium of the uterus, hence preparing it for implantation of the fertilized ovum (Whitaker et al, 1994). This important hormone also promotes secretory changes in the mucosal lining of the fallopian tubes and 'development of lobule and alveolar fat in the breasts that cause alveolar cells to enlarge and become secretory' (Whitaker et al, 1994, p758).
    ...
    from occurring, andand it helps
    2) The affect pregnancy has on oral health tissues (e.g. hormones on perio and gingival health)
    ...
    (Wilkins 2005).
    The demands of pregnancy can lead to particular dental problems in some women. With an increase tendency to snack as well as symptoms of nausea and vomiting may cause the mother to reduce oral hygiene habits due to tiredness or tendency of bleeding on brushing (Adelaide University 2007). Although luckily with well provided oral health instruction and education these problems can be eliminated.
    Gingivitis
    ...
    in use.
    Elevated levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy have been the assumed cause to such an exaggerated response with the risk of developing gingivitis beginning with the second month of pregnancy and decreases with the ninth month (Katz 2009). Problems will prove to become worse if the mother has gingivitis before her pregnancy as the likelihood of the condition will become worse during pregnancy if no treatment is taken to improve health of the oral tissues. It is important to understand that it is the hormonal changes occurring in the body which results in this exaggerated response, however it is still the bacteria present in plaque that causes the initial infection and therefore inflammation (Katz 2009). If gingivitis is left untreated, this can potentially lead to periodontal disease – an infection of the gums which can cause ligaments, gums and bone surrounding the teeth to become diseased and thereby create pockets (Katz 2009). These pockets can therefore become a way in which bacteria and toxic wastes (from bacteria metabolism) enter and travel through the bloodstream. This is a significant problem which is further discussed in the section ‘Associating periodontal disease during pregnancy with premature births’.
    Gingival enlargement/pregnancy tumour
    ...
    Food cravings during pregnancy can lead to snacking, hence avoiding and moderating the amount of high sugar snacks is important to reduce caries risk. Foods with high calcium content are recommended such as dairy products as well as fluoridated tap water whenever possible (Australian Dental Association 2005). If low sugary foods do not satisfy the cravings, choose fresh fruits as a substitute and have water or brush after consumption (Better Health Channel 2009).
    Gestational Diabetes
    ...
    thrush infections.
    “Diabetes

    “Diabetes
    mellitus is
    ...
    University 2007).
    Thus gestational diabetes is a temporary form of diabetes and usually disappears after the birth of the child. It is usually detected in the 24th – 28th week of pregnancy with statistics showing that 8% of pregnant women will develop gestational diabetes. The cause of diabetes during gestation is from the impairment of insulin action from hormones produced by the placenta needed to help the baby grow and develop, referred to as ‘insulin resistance’. Thus when energy levels increase and the role of insulin have been impaired, blood sugar levels rise and result in gestational diabetes (Better Health Channel 2009). After birth, the need for insulin returns to normal and the diabetes usually disappears. Gestational diabetes only poses a threat to the mother and unborn child if it is not diagnosed and thus not well controlled. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to an increase risk of gingivitis and periodontitis (seen in figure 1.2). Although the baby will not be born with diabetes, the high levels of glucose allowed to cross over from the mother to the baby through the placenta causes the production of insulin in the baby which promotes excessive growth and fat. Hence, the baby will be born larger than normal (Better Health Channel 2009). Ways in which this could be managed to reduce any health risks include diet, physical activity, monitoring blood glucose levels and insulin injections (Better Health Channel 2009). Women who run a risk of having type II diabetes post pregnancy need to look into maintaining a healthy eating plan, a healthy weight as well as engage in physical activity and an annual oral glucose tolerance test (Better Health Channel 2009).
    {http://www.pc.maricopa.edu/dental/ecc/preview/graphics/preggingivitis.JPG} Figure 1.1 Pregnancy Gingivitis {http://www.aafp.org/afp/20080415/afp20080415p1139-f4.jpg} Figure 1.2 Pregnancy Periodontitis
    ...
    Home & Family network (2009) http://www.homeandfamilynetwork.com/pregnancy/pregnancy-week-by-week_1.html Image of pregnant woman top of page, last checked 10/8/2009.
    Jiang P, Bargman E, Garrett N, et al(2008). A comparison of dental service use among commercially insured women in Minnesota before, during and after pregnancy, The Journal of the American Dental Association, Vol.139, pp1173-1180.
    ...
    p. 2144-2153.
    Marieb

    Marieb
    E (2007).
    ...
    Inc, p1120.
    Martini F(2001). Fundamentals of anatomy & physiology 5th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc, pp 1068-1083, G5.
    Mennito A(2006). Nitrous oxide sedation review, The dental learning network, pp13-16.
    ...
    Moore P(1998). Selecting drugs for the pregnant dental patient, The Journal of the American Dental Association, Vol.129(9), p1283.
    Whitaker SB, Bouquot JE, Alimario AE, Thomas J, Whitaker Jr 1994, ‘Identification and semiquantification of estrogen and progesterone receptors in pyogenic granulomas of pregnancy’, Medical College of Gerogia, viewed 12/09/2009, <http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy.library.adelaide.edu.au/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B7GHR-4FTPH6T-P0-1&_cdi=20185&_user=162644&_orig=browse&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F1994&_sk=999219993&view=c&wchp=dGLzVtz-zSkzk&md5=a9a59f93349ef4f2aae43cea97117df3&ie=/sdarticle.pdf>.
    ...
    of America.
    World Health Organization, ‘Diabetes mellitus’, Fact sheet no. 138, revised April 2002.
    Better Health Channel 2009, ‘Diabetes – gestational’, viewed 8/09/2009, <http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Gestational_diabetes?OpenDocument>.
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    6:59 pm

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